Arris - A sharp edge produced
by the meeting of two surfaces forming an exterior
Ashlar - Cut stone of uniform
dimensions and square edges, laid in horizontal
courses with vertical joints, as opposed to
Baluster - A short post or
pillar, supporting a rail or coping and thus
forming a balustrade.
Banker mason - A stone mason
who works on a bench or table to prepare and
shape their material.
Bolster - A blocking chisel
for cutting stone.
Bush hammer - A hammer having
a serrated face containing many pyramid shaped
points; used to dress a stone surface; originally
a hand tool but now usually power driven.
Column - An upright member,
circular in plan and usually slightly tapering;
in classical architecture it consists of a Basse,
shaft, and capital. It is used to carry a load,
but is also used ornamentally in isolation.
Coping - The capping or covering
to a wall; either flat or sloping. Its function
is to prevent water from running down the surfaces
of the wall or penetrating the wall assembly.
Most effective if extended beyond the wall line
and cut with a drip edge.
Curbing - A raised rim of
stone which forms the edge of a sidewalk or
Drip edge - A groove which
is cut along the underside of a member such
as a sill, stringcourse, or coping to prevent
water from running back across it toward the
Face Bedded - Stone that is
set so that its layers of sedimentation are
vertical and parallel to the exposed face; as
opposed to natural bedding plane.
Finial - A formal ornament
at the top of a canopy, gable, pinnacle, etc.
Flagstone, flagging, flag -
A flat stone usually 1" to 4" thick,
used as a stepping-stone or for terrace or outdoor
paving, usually either naturally thin or split
from rock that cleaves readily, sometimes produced
Fleché - A slender
spire rising from the ridge of a roof. Also
called a spirelet.
Gargoyle - A water spout projecting
from a roof, or a parapet of a wall or tower,
and carved into a grotesque figure, human or
Graft - To join a small piece
of stone to a stone substrate by pinning or
adhesion. A repair method used to replace deteriorated
portions of a stone.
Limestone - A sedimentary
rock that is formed by the accumulation of organic
remains (as shells or corals), consists mainly
of calcium carbonate, is extensively used in
Lintel - A horizontal beam
bridging an opening such as a window or door.
It carries the load of the wall over the opening.
Margin - The plain-dressed
border on the face of a hewn block; the middle
part of the face may be dressed or left rough.
Mortar - A mixture of cementitious
materials (such as cement or lime) with water
and a fine aggregate (such as sand); can be
troweled in the plastic state and hardens in
place. Non-staining white cement must be used
when setting limestone to avoid staining. The
mortar must always be softer than the materials
which it is designed to separate; otherwise,
spalling of the stone will occur.
Natural Bedding Plane - The
surface upon which the stone was originally
deposited (usually horizontal); as opposed to
Pediment - A triangular or
segmental feature, usually surrounded by a cornice
and crowning an elevation, doorway or window
Plinth - The lower vertical
member at the base of a column or pedestal.
Also applied to the projecting base of a building.
Quoin - The dressed stone
at the corners of buildings, usually laid so
that their faces are alternately large and small.
Their purpose is to reinforce external corners.
Ribbed tooling - A stone finish
applied by a broad chisel resembling corduroy
Rock-faced, split-faced -
A stone dressed or cleaved to resemble a natural,
rough stone face.
Spalling - The breaking off
of chips, scales or slabs of stone from the
main body of stone.
Sandstone - Sedimentary rock
composed of sand-sized grains, naturally cemented
by mineral materials. In most sandstone used
for building, quartz grains predominate.
Sedimentary rock - Rock, such
as limestone or sandstone, which is formed from
material deposited as sediments, in the sea
or fresh water, or on land.
Sill - The horizontal member
at the bottom of an opening such as a window
Split faced - see rock-faced.
Stringcourse, belt course, band course
- A horizontal band of masonry, extending
across the facade of a structure may be flush
or projecting, and flat-surfaced, molded, or
Variegated - Said of a material
or surface which is irregularly marked with
different colours; dappled.
Vermiculated - Ornamented
by irregular winding, wandering, and wavy lines,
as if caused by the movement of worms.
Walling - Materials for constructing
building or landscape walls. It may be regular
or irregular coursing.